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The first documented use of an organized courier service for the diffusion of written documents is in Egypt, where Pharaohs used couriers for the diffusion of their decrees in the territory of the State (2400 BC)..
Julius Caesar regularly publicized his heroic deeds in Gaul, and upon becoming Emperor of Rome began publishing government announcements called Acta Diurna.
The Zulu Kingdom used runners to quickly disseminate news. In most cases, the official spreaders of news have been closely aligned with holders of political power.
Town criers were a common means of conveying information to citydwellers.
Postal services have long been closely entwined with the maintenance of political power in a large area.
Visible chains of long distance signaling, known as optical telegraphy, have also been used throughout history to convey limited types of information.
Similar developments are found in the Slavic languages the Czech and Slovak noviny (from nový, "new"), the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, and Russian novosti — and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion (from newydd) and the Cornish nowodhow (from nowydh).
Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, and to exclude discussion of the relationships between them.
Thus, political, religious, and commercial interests have historically controlled, expanded, and monitored communications channels by which news could spread.
News is also transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths.
Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news, even after telecommunications became widely available.
News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past, even when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future.
To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment.
News is provided through many different media: word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, and also on the testimony of observers and witnesses to events.